Laser cutting is a relatively new method of material processing. It consists in a laser beam being directed by a computer onto a workpiece, allowing to cut even the most complex elements. Moreover, the laser beam is not subject to contamination (like conventional blades), which ensures uniform precision of each movement, and the edge of the workpiece is smooth and free from imperfections. It all leads to truly high cutting quality and accuracy.
Laser cutting may be achieved through melting, combustion and sublimation. Irrespective of the applied method, the same cutting process is always followed, consisting of three stages: start of cutting, cutting, and end of cutting. The second stage is obviously the crucial one, in which the focused laser energy is applied to material. One of three laser types can be used in the process: CO2, ND, ND - YAG. CO2 laser is the most common one, as it also enables engraving and drilling (in addition to cutting).
Laser cutting is applied not only for processing metals, but also for cutting glass, plastics and wood.
Advantages of laser cutting
- high cutting quality
- high cutting precision
- high cutting speed
- low noise level
- full automation
- smooth surface and edges after cutting
- high cutting cleanliness
- material savings
- high cutting flexibility
- possibility of cutting even very small elements
- possibility of cutting elements with very complex shapes
We specialize in professional welding of structural and alloy carbon steels as well as aluminium. Our highly qualified and experienced staff, combined with modern equipment and workstations as well as operating methods compliant with ISO 3834-2 standard guarantee top quality of services. Our Company offers welding services using the following methods:
In TIG welding method, the heat produced by electric arc burning between a non-consumable tungsten electrode and the parent material causes melting of the surface of the base material and filler material, thus creating a durable weld. TIG welding process takes place in an inert gas shield – usually argon, helium or their mixtures. The gas aims to protect the electrode and the weld against oxidation. TIG method is mainly used for welding high-alloy steels as well as titanium, copper, aluminium, nickel and other alloys. TIG method is very often used for welding pipes and thin sheet metal.
Advantages of TIG welding:
- high quality of welds
- wide range of base material thickness
- possibility of welding various materials, even very thin sheet metal
- no liquid metal spatter
- possibility of applying automated welding solutions
MAG welding consists in melting the parent materials and the continuously fed consumable electrode by the heat of the electric arc burning between the electrode and the workpiece, in an active gas shield. The precise shield of the welding arc existing throughout the process ensures that the weld is produced in very favourable thermal and metallurgical conditions. For this reason, among others, the method can be used for welding carbon steels as well as low-alloy, corrosion-resistant and special steel grades. At present, MAG welding is the most common welding method. It is often applied in heavy industry, machine/engineering industry, as well as repair and maintenance sector.
Advantages of MAG welding:
- very high welding efficiency
- possibility of welding various materials
- very high weld quality
- low cost
- possibility of applying automated/robotic welding solutions
TURNING – separating a layer of material from a workpiece using a cutting tool on a machine called lathe.
Depending on the direction of feed motion of the cutting tool in relation to workpiece rotation axis, the following processes can be distinguished:
- straight turning – the cutting tool is moved parallel to the axis of rotation,
- facing - the cutting tool travels at right angles to the axis of rotation.
Brief characteristics of turning operations
The most common operations involving lathes include:
- turning of external surfaces of cylindrical workpieces
- turning of conical surfaces
- spot drilling, boring, reaming
Turning of external cylindrical surfaces is the most popular machining method conducted using universal and automated lathes. At the beginning of the process rough turning is applied in order to remove a larger part of stock; shaping and finishing is carried out to remove the remaining stock and achieve desired dimensions specified in the drawing. While conducting those operations, a scale placed on the slide should be referred to, with cutting depth being precisely adjusted. Roughing is usually characterised by considerable feed rate and cutting depth at low speed, while finishing requires low feed rate and depth, but high turning speed.
Basic turning parameters and general formulas:
- spindle's rotation speed - n [rpm]
- cutting speed - Vc [m/min]
- feed rate - fn [mm/r] – tool advancement into the material in one revolution; it can be assumed that the feed rate should not exceed 2/3 of the nose radius
- depth of cut – ap – is the distance from the uncut surface of the workpiece to the cut surface
- layer of removed stock - Q
- tool cutting edge angle - kr
- tool nose radius – the selection is very important, as it determines the quality of resulting surface; it should be noted that larger radius should be used for roughing, while finishing requires possibly small radii
- surface finish (theoretical)
Brief characteristics of milling
The most common operations involving milling machines include:
- rotary planing,
- milling slots and grooves,
- drilling, boring,
- channel milling and cutting.
The following types of milling can be distinguished:
1) climb milling (down milling) – where the direction of tool rotation is the same as the direction of workpiece feed
2) out-cut milling (up milling) – where the direction of tool rotation is opposite to the direction of workpiece feed
3) profile milling (contour milling) – using a formed cutter with a profile suited to the desired result
Milling processes can also be classified as:
a) peripheral milling - the axis of the cutter is parallel to the machined surface
b) face milling - the tool rotates around an axis perpendicular to the feed direction, while the workpiece travels along a straight line in relation to it; in other words, the axis of the cutter is perpendicular to the machined surface
c) angle milling - when angle milling cutters are applied and when the angle between the tool rotation axis and the machined surface is different than 0° or 90°.
Basic milling parameters and general formulas:
- spindle speed [rpm] – calculated on the basis of recommended cutting speed for a given tool and operation
- table feed rate [mm/min] – rate of travel of the tool in relation to the workpiece
Vf = fz*n*zn
- feed per tooth [mm/tooth] – used for calculating table feed rate during milling operations
- depth of cut [mm] – depth to which cutter head penetrates the surface of the workpiece; set in relation to surface level before milling
- cutting speed Vc [m/min] – adjusted to a given type of tool and workpiece material
Basic operations performed using drilling machines:
- drilling – cutting a hole with a specific diameter in solid material
- reaming – method of finishing a previously formed hole, aiming to obtain high surface quality and low dimensional tolerances
- counterboring – enlarging an existing coaxial hole with a tool that removes a substantial amount of material on the periphery of the hole
- bevelling, spot facing – enlarging a hole deeper at a short distance, e.g. to seat the head of a fastener
Basic milling parameters and general formulas:
- feed rate [mm/min]: Vf = fn*n
- cutting speed
The most common tools applied for drilling holes in metal surfaces are twist drills. They are used for executing cylindrical holes. Diameters of the working part range from 0.1 mm to 100 mm. Drills can be made from a single material – e.g. tool steel, high-speed steel or sintered carbides – or from combined materials, e.g. web and shank made from structural steel, and the working part with carbide nibs. At present many different drill bit shanks are available: common straight cylindrical shanks, hex drill bit shanks, popular quick-release SDS Plus and SDS Max shanks for professional (construction) applications, as well as Morse taper shanks for industrial applications.
Plastic working processes give workpieces specific shapes and dimensions as a result of working pressure exceeding the yield point. In brief, it translates into a permanent change of shape and dimensions of the processed material. In effect, excellent mechanical properties are achieved. Plastic working can take the form of a cold, hot or semi-hot process. It is a very common material treatment method, improving mechanical properties and offering the possibility of obtaining complex forms while maintaining unit costs of production at a low level.
Advantages of plastic working:
- possibility of achieving even very complex shapes
- better physical and mechanical properties of the workpiece
- maintaining continuity of fibres
- high material savings
- low unit costs
Our Company offers wide range of cold plastic working services – manual or automated – e.g.:
- tube bending,
- sheet metal bending,
For most types of plastic working operations we use eccentric presses. They are used for sheet metal bending and operations such as punching shapes in metal sheets or flat bars, pressing to improve mechanical properties and to ensure desired form, as well as forging that results in so-called forgings expected by the Customer.
In many situations we are ready to design and build custom-made tools, dies and workshop aids in order to live up to our Customers' orders.
Sheet Metal Bending
Sheet metal bending is a process used for shaping objects made of sheet metal, or sheet metal itself. It consists in permanent deformation of sheet metal under bending moment, without disrupting its cohesion. Sheet metal bending can be a cold or hot process. It includes such actions as: twisting, folding, reeling, wrapping, forming, twisting and straightening.
Sheet metal bending methods employ:
- press bending,
- roll bending,
- pull broaching.
Irrespective of the methods and tools applied, sheet metal bending process itself always consists of three phases: elastic bending, plastic bending, restriking.
Our Company specializes in bending small-sized workpieces using eccentric presses with a pressing capability of 40 t, 60 t and 100 t. Our extensive machine park paired with invaluable experience of press operators and continuous engineering support allow to fully satisfy our Customers' expectations.
Punching consists in cutting sheet metal using dies. Basic punching operations include: blanking, trimming, perforating, parting, notching, slitting, shearing. The entire process is effected between the punch and the die. Sheet metal punching involves the use of eccentric presses. Punching operations are rarely executed independently, usually being combined with stamping. Due to high efficiency, the process is mostly used in industry.
Cutting is a common plastic working process, involving the use of special guillotine shears designed for cutting sheet metal to pre-determined dimensions. Basic cutting operations in this area include: bar cutting, section cutting, sheet metal cutting using shears and sheet metal cutting using dies.
The following phases can be distinguished in the process of metal workpiece cutting:
- elastic - plastic phase,
- plastic flow phase,
- breaking phase.
Pressing comprises a number of processes that are mainly applied for separating or joining sheet metal, foils and plates, as well as for shaping metal sheets and plates. The operation is effected with tools referred to as stamping dies. It resembles punching, but the process itself is much more complicated and it requires different tools. Due to high efficiency, this solution is often selected as a processing method.
Forging is a plastic working process involving deformation of workpiece material due to blowing or compressive forces. During forging, the material acquires desired shape, structure and mechanical properties. It can be a hot, warm or cold process. Forging can involve the following operations: upsetting, drawing, twisting, cutting, bending, punching, hobbing, or becking. This method is most frequently used in fence production.